is a southern African nation officially known as the Republic of Botswana. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. With an area of 581,730 square kilometers (224,606 square miles), it has a population of 2,379,000 according to estimates for 2023. Its capital is Gaborone. The majority of the population are ethnic Tswana, with other major groups including Khalagari, Ngwato, Tswapong, Birwa, and Kalanga. There are also smaller numbers of Khoekhoe and San people, some of whom still follow a nomadic lifestyle. English and Tswana are the official languages. The main religion is Christianity, though traditional beliefs are still practiced by some. The national currency is the pula.
Most of Botswana consists of a sand-filled basin with an average elevation of about 3,300 feet (1,000 meters). Part of the Kalahari Desert is located in its southwest and western regions, while the Okavango Swamp is found in the north. Permanent surface water is scarce, being limited to the Chobe River which marks the Namibian border, the Okavango River in the extreme northwest, and the Limpopo River which marks its southeastern South African boundary. Traditional livelihoods rely on livestock raising, though diamond mining has also become an increasingly important source of income. It is a multiparty republic consisting of a single legislative body and an advisory council, with the president serving as head of state and government.