The climate of Brazil
is a vast country with diverse climate patterns ranging from tropical (Köppen climate classification Af, Am, Aw) in the north and west, to temperate in the south (Köppen Cwa, Cwb). The northeastern part of the country is semi-arid to arid (Köppen BWh, BSh). The core climatic pattern is tropical due to the location near the equator. A minor portion of the south has an oceanic climate type, with its variants (Köppen Cfa, Cfb). Summers are hot and humid, while winters are mild in the majority of the country. Brazil occupies a large portion in South America and shares borders with Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname in the north, Argentina, and Paraguay in the southwest, Uruguay in the south, Bolivia, and Peru in the west, and Colombia in the northwest. The tropical location, a vast network of rivers, and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, influence the climate.
Brazil has a diverse topography of hills, mountains, highlands, and plains, but the average altitude lies between 200 meters to 600 meters. The Atlantic Ocean on the east gives a vast coastline of 4655 miles. The equator and Tropic of Capricorn pass through Brazil, and the rainforest of the Amazon has the richest biodiversity in the world. The Guiana Highlands form a dividing range that separates rivers flowing between the Amazon Basin in the south and the Orinoco river system in the north. The southeast has a rugged terrain with many mountain ranges of moderate elevations. A part of the northeast is arid, while the Atlantic Ocean regulates temperatures near the eastern coast. High evaporation rates make it challenging to grow crops in the northeast. Pico da Neblina has the highest point at 2994 meters in Brazil.
The best time to visit Brazil
The best time to visit Brazil
is usually in the mild winter, which lasts from June
south of the equator. The coldest period is also less rainy and reasonably sunny everywhere, except for a portion in the south. The south is occasionally cold, especially at high altitudes, and registers frost and snow. The ocean waters at an average of 13.9°C are cold in Rio in August and register between 21.1°C to 23.9°C in March
The sea temperatures on the coasts of north-central Brazil are warm enough for swimming throughout the year. The Amazon rainforest is much friendlier during periods of less rain and humidity. Flora and fauna are much visible during the bright and dry periods when the sunrays hope to touch the ground.
The worst time to visit Brazil
The worst time to visit Brazil
is during the hot summer from December
when the heat and humidity are high. The equatorial location is prone to daily rain, and the sticky conditions become quickly unbearable for people from temperate regions. Heavy rainfall occurs in many parts of the country during the summer. Rivers flood quickly, and the swelling waters become an obstruction.
The Amazon Basin is notorious for humid conditions, and the combination of summer and rain is a breeding period for mosquitoes. The southern temperate portion of the country offers respite from the heat at high elevations, if a summer trip is mandatory. The eastern beaches see fewer crowds during the hot and wet season.
Spring weather in Brazil
's spring, occurring from September
, offers pleasantly warm weather with temperatures generally ranging between 20°C and 30°C. In the south, however, temperatures can drop to a mild 15°C. Rainfall begins to pick up, marking the start of the wet season, particularly in the north and central regions. The Amazon Basin transitions from the dry to the wet season, with rainfall increasing significantly. Despite this, the highlands and coastal areas are usually sun-drenched, making this season perfect for beach-goers.
Summer weather in Brazil
Summers in Brazil
, from December
, are hot, humid, and wet. The temperatures frequently rise above 37.8°C in the northeast during the dry season, whereas the Amazon region rarely experiences temperatures above 32.2°C. Even with high humidity, the coastal areas offer a moderate annual temperature range, from 22.8°C to 27.2°C. In contrast, the south sees temperature decreases, particularly south of Rio de Janeiro and at high altitudes. Despite the intense heat, beach towns and coastal cities maintain a steady flow of visitors, attracted by the warm waters and vibrant cultural events.
Autumn weather in Brazil
During the autumn months, from March
sees a gradual cooling of temperatures. The north, being closer to the equator, still maintains warm temperatures, typically from 25°C to 30°C. In contrast, the southern regions experience milder temperatures that can drop to 15°C, especially towards the end of the season. While rainfall remains high in the Amazon region, the rest of the country begins to see reduced precipitation, signaling the end of the wet season.
Winter weather in Brazil
's winter, from June
, is typically mild, with the southern region experiencing the lowest temperatures. Frost and snow are not uncommon on the high plateaus and mountains south of the Tropic of Capricorn. The Amazon region, while seeing less precipitation, continues to maintain high humidity levels. Winter is generally the driest season in most parts of the country, with temperatures rarely falling below 10°C. In the northeastern regions, despite a decrease in rainfall, high evaporation rates continue to present challenges for agriculture.
Weather in January
marks the peak of summer in Brazil
, with some of the highest temperatures of the year. It is one of the warmest months, with temperatures soaring above 37.8°C in the northeastern regions. The Amazon Basin also experiences hot weather; however, temperatures rarely cross 32.2°C due to the heavy humidity and dense foliage. In contrast to the north, the Atlantic coast offers more moderate temperatures ranging from 22.8°C to 27.2°C, a pleasant respite to those unaccustomed to the Brazilian heat. Weather in January »
Weather in February
continues the trend of hot summer temperatures in Brazil
, but it brings a slight respite from the intense heat of January
. The heat lessens slightly across the country, with temperatures decreasing marginally in the northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin. Weather in February »
Weather in March
heralds the end of summer in Brazil
, transitioning towards milder temperatures compared to the scorching heat experienced in the preceding months of January
. The northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin experience a slight decrease in temperatures, which generally remain above 30°C, although no longer reaching the peaks of the summer months. Coastal cities, including Rio de Janeiro, retain their moderate temperatures with a range of 22.8°C to 27.2°C, offering a comfortable climate for visitors. Weather in March »
Weather in April
With the arrival of April
begins to experience the cooler temperatures of the autumn season. The northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin, while still warm, notice a further reduction in temperatures compared to the preceding months. Weather in April »
Weather in May
brings a further cooling trend to Brazil
as the country delves deeper into the autumn season. The northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin still manage to hold temperatures above 30°C, but the heat is noticeably milder compared to the summer months. The coastal cities, such as Rio de Janeiro, experience a further reduction in temperatures, typically ranging from 22.8°C to 27.2°C. Weather in May »
Weather in June
The arrival of June
marks the onset of winter in Brazil
. The northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin, while retaining temperatures above 30°C, experience a perceptible shift away from the warmer weather, with nights becoming notably cooler. Coastal cities such as Rio de Janeiro begin to feel the winter chill, with temperatures dropping slightly to range between 22.8°C to 27.2°C. Weather in June »
Weather in July
is in the heart of the winter season. The northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin, though still hovering above 30°C, witness cooler nights and early mornings. The daily temperature range becomes more pronounced, offering relief from the relentless heat experienced in the previous months. In coastal cities such as Rio de Janeiro, temperatures remain stable, ranging from 22.8°C to 27.2°C, providing a mild and pleasant coastal winter experience. Weather in July »
Weather in August
, the winter season persists in Brazil
. However, the northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin begin to experience a slight rise in temperatures, with values typically exceeding 30°C. While the nights continue to be cool, the increasing daytime temperatures hint at the approaching end of the winter season. The coastal cities, including Rio de Janeiro, remain in a stable temperature range of 22.8°C to 27.2°C. Weather in August »
Weather in September
signifies the transition from winter to spring, leading to noticeable shifts in weather patterns across the country. Temperatures in the northeastern regions and the Amazon Basin continue their upward trend, frequently crossing 30°C during the day. Weather in September »
Weather in October
ushers in the spring season in Brazil
, with the northern and Amazon Basin regions experiencing a steady rise in temperatures, frequently reaching above 30°C during the day. The nights turn progressively warmer, indicating the complete withdrawal of the winter season. In the coastal cities, including Rio de Janeiro, the temperature continues to rise modestly, ranging from 22.8°C to 27.2°C. Weather in October »
Weather in November
is characterised by the full-fledged spring season, with temperatures in the northern regions and the Amazon Basin maintaining the upward trend and frequently exceeding 30°C during daytime. The nights are comfortably warm, providing a stark contrast to the cold winter nights experienced a few months prior. Along the coastline, cities like Rio de Janeiro witness a further rise in temperatures, with averages ranging between 22.8°C and 27.2°C. Weather in November »
Weather in December
brings the onset of summer in Brazil
, with temperatures in the northern regions and the Amazon Basin hitting their peak. Daytime temperatures frequently reach over 30°C, making for hot and humid conditions. Evenings provide a slight respite with marginally cooler temperatures, although the overall warmth is still palpable. Coastal cities like Rio de Janeiro experience a further increase in temperatures, with the average ranging from 22.8°C to 27.2°C. Weather in December »