is a landlocked country in east Africa, located on the Horn of Africa. It covers an area of 1,063,652 sq km, and has an estimated population of 106,359,000 people as of 2023. The capital city of Ethiopia is Addis Ababa.
Ethiopia is composed of many ethnic groups, including Amhara, Oromo, Tigray, Afar, Somali, Saho, and Agew. The main languages spoken in Ethiopia are Amharic and Oromo. Christianity (predominantly Ethiopian Orthodox; also Protestant) , Islam, and traditional beliefs are the main religions practiced in the country. The currency used is the birr.
The geography of Ethiopia is mainly comprised of mountainous regions in the north and lowlands to the east and west. The central region is divided by the Great Rift Valley, and features a temperate climate in the highlands and hot climate in the arid lowlands. Agriculture is one of the main sources of income for Ethiopians, with cereals as the main crop. Coffee is the top export, followed by hides and skins.
In 1995, Ethiopia became a federal republic with two legislative houses—the House of the Federation and the House of Peoples’ Representatives. The head of state is the president, while the head of government is the prime minister.
Unfortunately, intensive farming and deforestation have resulted in severe erosion and food shortages. Additionally, many species of wildlife have been decimated due to hunting. Ethiopia is one of the world’s poorest countries and faces numerous challenges, including poverty and lack of infrastructure.