is a country located in central Africa, with an area of 103,347 square miles (267,667 square kilometers). Its estimated population in 2023 is 2,349,000 people. The capital and largest city is Libreville.
Gabon has more than 40 ethnic groups. The Fang are the largest group, accounting for over one-quarter of the population. Other major ethnic groups include the Sira (including the Punu) and Nzebi. French is the official language, while several Bantu languages are also spoken. Christianity, Islam, and traditional beliefs are among the common religions practiced in Gabon. The monetary unit is the CFA franc.
Gabon straddles the Equator on the western coast of Africa. It features a narrow coastal plain, hilly terrain in the south and north, and a basin of its chief river -- the Ogooué -- that covers most of the country. About three-fourths of the land is covered with equatorial rainforest, which supports numerous plant and animal species. The country's natural resources include manganese, petroleum, and natural gas deposits, all of which are among the world's largest.
The economy of Gabon is based largely on the exploitation of these mineral and timber resources. The political system is a unitary multiparty republic, with the president as head of state and the prime minister as head of government. Its parliament consists of two legislative houses: the Senate (102 members) and the National Assembly (120 members).
Life expectancy at birth averages 66.8 years for males and 70.2 years for females. The literacy rate is 86% for males and 83% for females. The Gross National Income (GNI) per capita in 2020 was $6,970.