The Republic of Iraq
is a country located in the Middle East, southwest Asia, and northwest of the Persian Gulf. It has an area of 167,975 square miles (435,052 sq km) and a population estimated at 43,388,000 in 2023. Its capital city is Baghdad. The people of Iraq are mostly Arabs, with a small Kurdish minority. Arabic and Kurdish are both official languages, and Islam is the official religion.
Iraq's economy is primarily driven by petroleum and natural gas reserves, which are some of the largest in the world. Agriculture also plays an important role in the country's overall economic output. Iraq is governed as a multiparty republic, with the President serving as head of state and the Prime Minister as head of government.
The country can be divided into four distinct regions: the Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plains in central and southeastern Iraq; Al-Jazīrah, an upland area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; deserts in the west and south, covering nearly two-fifths of the territory; and highlands in the northeast.
In addition to its vast resources, Iraq boasts a life expectancy of 70.5 years for men and 74.3 years for women, and an adult literacy rate of 91% for males and 80% for females. GDP per capita stands at $4,660 USD, and the country's total GDP is estimated at $187,367,000,000 USD in 2020.