The Republic of Liberia
is a country located in western Africa. It has a total area of 97,036 square kilometres (37,466 sq mi) and a population estimated at 5,209,000 according to the World Bank in 2023. The capital of Liberia is Monrovia. The main ethnic groups in Liberia are the Americo-Liberians, descendants of freed slaves from the United States who emigrated to Liberia in the 19th century, and 16 indigenous peoples belonging to the Mande, Kwa, and Mel linguistic groups. The official language of the country is English, alongside various indigenous languages. Religions practiced in Liberia include traditional beliefs, Christianity, and Islam. The currency used in Liberia is the Liberian Dollar.
Liberia has a long coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and features lowlands, hills, and low mountains further inland. Roughly one fifth of the country is covered by tropical rainforest. Agriculture is the main component of the economy, with rice and cassava as the staple crops and rubber, coffee, and cacao being the main cash crops. Liberia also has large iron ore reserves which form a major part of their exports.
Politically, Liberia is a multiparty republic with two legislative houses, with the president acting as both head of state and government. Liberia is the oldest Republic in Africa, having been established in 1847 after Joseph Jenkins Roberts proclaimed independence from the American Colonization Society who had founded a colony at Cape Mesurado in 1821. After gaining independence, Liberia was involved in border disputes with the French and British until 1892 when the boundaries were officially established. In 1980, a coup led by General Samuel K. Doe saw the end of political dominance of the Americo-Liberians, leading to a rebellion in 1989 which escalated into a civil war in the 1990s. A peace agreement was reached in 1996 followed by further fighting in 1999 that lasted until 2003. A National Transitional Government was then established with the support of United Nations peacekeeping troops, leading to democratic elections in 2005, won by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the first woman to be elected head of state in Africa. She was succeeded by former football star George Weah in 2018.