is a country located in western Africa, situated on the southern edge of the Sahara desert. It has an area of 1,267,000 square kilometers (489,191 square miles) and an estimated population of 23,437,000 in 2022. The capital is Niamey.
Niger is characterized by savanna in the south and desert in the center and north; most of the population lives in the south. The Niger River runs through the southwest part of the country, while the Aïr Massif, a mountainous region, is found in the north-central part.
The majority of Niger's population is composed of Hausa people, though there are also Songhai-Zerma and Kanuri communities. French is the official language, while Hausa and Arabic are also widely spoken. Islam (predominantly Sunni) is the main religion, though traditional beliefs are also present. The currency is the CFA franc.
Niger is a republic with one legislative body, the National Assembly, and the president as head of state and the prime minister as head of government. Its economy is largely based on agriculture and mining.
Life expectancy at birth is 63.7 years for men and 65 years for women, according to 2016 figures. The literacy rate for adults aged 15 and over is 44% for males and 27% for females, as of 2018. The gross national income per capita is US $540, as of 2020.