is a northwestern US state located on the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by Washington, Idaho, Nevada, and California with the Columbia River forming its northern boundary and the Snake River its upper eastern one. The Cascades Range, which includes iconic Mount Hood, stretches across the state's western central region.
The area of Oregon was first sighted by Spanish explorers, then visited by Francis Drake in 1579 and James Cook in 1778. Many Native American peoples had already inhabited the area when, in 1792, Captain Robert Gray explored the Columbia River, thus giving the United States a claim to the region. The mouth of the river was reached by Lewis and Clark during their expedition in 1805 and the first white settlement was founded at Astoria in 1811 by John J. Astor.
From around 1843, mass migration over the Oregon Trail spurred settlement of the region which was made part of the Oregon Territory before being admitted as the 33rd US state in 1859. Oregon's economy is largely dependent on its forests, agriculture and livestock, while the fishing industry relies heavily on salmon and shellfish. Portland, Eugene and Medford are the state's main centres of population, art and education.
Nicknamed the “Beaver State”, Oregon is home to the Western Meadowlark (state bird) and the Oregon grape (state flower). Its motto is “She Flies with her Own Wings” and the official state song is “Oregon, My Oregon”.
As of 2022, the estimated population of Oregon is 4,240,137 people, spread out over a total area of 98,379 square miles (254,800 sq km). The state has five seats in the United States House of Representatives and is served by two time zones, Pacific (GMT − 8 hours) and Mountain (GMT − 7 hours).