, a state in the Middle Atlantic region of the United States, is officially known as the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It has an area of 46,054 square miles (119,280 sq km) and a population of 13,002,700 people as of 2021; a projected 12,972,008 people by 2022. The state’s capital is Harrisburg.
Pennsylvania is bordered by Lake Erie and New York on the north, New York and New Jersey on the east, Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia on the south, and the panhandle of West Virginia and Ohio on the west. The Delaware River forms part of its eastern boundary, and the Monongahela River unites with the Allegheny River at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River.
The area was inhabited by Native American tribes such as the Shawnee and Delaware when Europeans arrived in the 17th century. Philadelphia, the state’s largest city, hosted both the first and second Continental Congresses, and it was there that the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. As one of the original states of the Union, Pennsylvania was the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution in 1787.
Today, Pennsylvania is one of the most prosperous states in the nation, with an economy based on farming, mining, manufacturing, and high technology. It is also a major producer of specialty steel and coal. Philadelphia and Pittsburgh are major ports, home to distinguished educational, cultural, and musical institutions.
Nicknamed the "Keystone State," Pennsylvania's official motto is "Virtue, Liberty, and Independence." Its state bird is the ruffed grouse, its state flower is the mountain laurel, and its state song is “Pennsylvania.” It has 18 representatives in the United States House of Representatives, out of 435. Its time zone is Eastern (GMT-5 hours).