Trinidad and Tobago
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
is an island country located in the West Indies. It is composed of two islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and is the southernmost link in the Antilles island chain. With a total area of 1,980 square miles (5,128 square kilometers), the country is mainly flat or rolling with narrow belts of mountainous highlands and lush rainforests. The Caroni Swamp, an important bird sanctuary located on Trinidad, is home to populations of flamingos, egrets, and scarlet ibises.
Trinidad and Tobago has large reserves of petroleum and natural gas, as well as one of the world's largest supplies of natural asphalt. Other industries in the country include agriculture, fishing, and tourism. Chief crops cultivated here include sugarcane, citrus fruits, cocoa, and coffee.
Trinidad and Tobago is a multiparty republic that is headed by a president and governed by a prime minister. There are two legislative houses: the Senate (31 seats) and the House of Representatives (42 seats). English is the official language of the nation, although the people are mainly of South Asian or African ancestry. The major religions practiced here are Christianity (Protestant and Roman Catholic), Hinduism, and Islam. The official currency is the Trinidadian Dollar.
In terms of population, the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is estimated to have 1,364,000 inhabitants in 2023. As of 2022, its population rank is 156th in the world. The life expectancy at birth for males in 2019 was 70.9 years, and for females it was 76.2 years. In terms of literacy, 99% of males and 98% of females aged over 15 years old are literate. The country’s Gross National Income (GNI) in 2020 was US$21,560 million and its GNI per capita was US$15,410.