The climate of Turkey
exhibits multiple types of climate, such as the Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification Csa, Csb) along the western and southern coasts, and oceanic (Köppen Cfa, Cfb) along the Black Sea. The interior is mainly continental (Köppen variants of Df and Ds) and culminates with an arid desert type (Köppen BWk) in the southeast. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran share borders with Turkey in the east, Iraq, and Syria in the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea in the south, and the Aegean Sea in the west. Greece and Bulgaria are its neighbors in the northwest, the Black Sea in the north, and Georgia in the northwest. Turkey lies mostly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Asia, with a small part that occupies the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. The large water bodies on three sides of Turkey, high mountains, and location in the temperate latitudes influence its climate.
Turkey is a transcontinental country that spans Eurasia, and its capital, Istanbul, is a transcontinental city. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles separate European Turkey that comprises 3% of the country's territory from the rest 97% part in Asia. The Aegean, Marmara, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, and the Mediterranean comprise the seven geographical divisions in Turkey. The Taurus Mountains lie in the southern part of the Anatolian Peninsula. The principal rivers, such as Euphrates and Tigris, originate in mountainous Eastern Turkey. Mountains prevent the moderate weather of the coast from extending inland, which results in a harsh climate in the interior. The Northern Anatolian Fault Line runs east to west in the northern part of the country. Mount Ararat is the highest point in Turkey at 5137 meters.
The best time to visit Turkey
The best times to visit Turkey
are in the spring and autumn seasons, as the summer is generally hot. May
, and September
are preferable months for a trip to the west coast, Istanbul, and the Anatolian Plateau. The southern coast is a perfect destination in late spring and early autumn. Summer is a time to cool down in the high mountains of the southeast. July
are also better for beach holidays in the north and the north-east, along the shores of the Black Sea, when much of Turkey is hot and dry. The bathing season runs from June to September on the west coast, where the waters are slightly cold.
The worst time to visit Turkey
The worst time to visit Turkey
, if there is any, is during the hot and dry summer season. Temperatures often soar above 32.2°C (90°F) during the day. The arid southeastern region is particularly hot, with daily high temperatures mostly above 37.8°C (100°F). However, many northern and western regions see a surge in tourist numbers, with the commencement of the bathing season along the coast. The eastern plateau is hot in the summer and severely cold in the winter. Snowfall occurs for 120 days in the year. Eastern Anatolia often registers temperatures below -28.9°C (-20°F) in the cold season, which makes January
a time to avoid places on the plateau.
Spring weather in Turkey
Spring in Turkey
is characterized by moderate rainfall and mild temperatures, making it an ideal time for sightseeing and outdoor activities. Coastal regions enjoy pleasant weather with temperatures ranging from 15.6°C (60.1°F) to 26.7°C (80.1°F), while the interior's climate remains more variable. Spring also marks the beginning of the lush green landscapes in various regions, particularly around the Black Sea, where the temperatures range from 15°C (59°F) to 26°C (78.8°F), offering a lovely environment for tourists and locals alike.
Summer weather in Turkey
Summers in Turkey
are hot and generally drier than other seasons. Interior regions can experience temperatures between 29.4°C (84.9°F) to 36.1°C (97°F), with southeastern areas reaching even higher. The Black Sea region offers the coldest summers, providing a refreshing alternative with average temperatures from 15.6°C (60.1°F) to 26.7°C (80.1°F). Along the southern coast, sea temperatures range from 17.2°C (63°F) to 27.2°C (81°F), offering a warm and inviting environment for beachgoers.
Autumn weather in Turkey
Autumn brings a transition from hot summer days to more moderate temperatures across Turkey
. This season is marked by a decrease in rainfall, especially in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, and Mediterranean Sea regions. Coastal areas experience temperatures from 20°C (68°F) to 28°C (82.4°F), making it a suitable time for outdoor exploration. The central, eastern, and southeastern regions, with their lower precipitation levels ranging from 381mm (15") to 508mm (20"), also become more appealing for visitors during autumn.
Winter weather in Turkey
Winters in Turkey
are often cold and snowy, particularly in the interior regions where snowfall can last up to 120 days. Eastern Anatolia is especially harsh, with night temperatures ranging from -30°C (-22°F) to -40°C (-40°F). The Black Sea and Marmara coasts experience moderate snow that doesn't linger for more than a few days, with temperatures between 5°C (41°F) to 10°C (50°F). Despite the cold, the unique winter landscapes offer opportunities for winter sports, and the mountain peaks remain snowy throughout the year, adding to the country's scenic beauty.
Weather in January
is typically characterized by cold and often snowy weather, particularly in the interior and eastern regions. It stands as one of the coldest months of the year, with Eastern Anatolia experiencing extreme cold, registering temperatures often below -28.9°C (-20°F). Weather in January »
Weather in February
continues the cold trend of winter in Turkey
, but with some slight changes compared to January
. While the interior and Eastern Anatolia still experience harsh winter conditions, February generally sees a gradual rise in temperatures. In the interior, temperatures may fluctuate from -10°C (14°F) to 4°C (39.2°F). Weather in February »
Weather in March
marks a significant transition in Turkey
's weather as the country begins to shift from the cold grip of winter to the more temperate conditions of spring. Though the change can vary across regions, a general warming trend is noticeable. In the interior and Eastern Anatolia, the frigid temperatures of previous months begin to recede. Weather in March »
Weather in April
signifies a more profound shift towards spring, with warming temperatures and blossoming landscapes across most of the country. It represents a departure from the winter's lingering chill, especially in the interior and eastern regions. In the interior, temperatures start to stabilize, ranging from 5°C (41°F) to 17°C (62.6°F). Weather in April »
Weather in May
is characterized by a pronounced shift towards summer, with warmer temperatures and longer days becoming more evident. Spring is in full bloom, and the weather conditions across the country continue to improve. In the interior, temperatures range from 10°C (50°F) to 23°C (73.4°F), with a noticeable reduction in cold nights. Weather in May »
Weather in June
ushers in the summer season, with hot weather becoming more prevalent, especially in the inland and southeastern regions. The month is characterized by longer days, reduced precipitation, and the onset of the bathing season in many coastal areas. In the interior, temperatures continue to climb, ranging from 15°C (59°F) to 28°C (82.4°F). Weather in June »
Weather in July
is characterized by the full arrival of the summer season, with hot temperatures dominating most of the country. It's a month marked by sun-soaked days, minimal precipitation, and lively outdoor activities, especially in coastal regions. In the interior regions, temperatures range from 18°C (64.4°F) to 31°C (87.8°F), with hot days becoming the norm. Weather in July »
Weather in August
is one of the hottest months in Turkey
, and it continues the trend set by July
, offering sun-drenched days, minimal rainfall, and thriving outdoor activities in most regions. The interior regions of Turkey, encompassing the central, eastern, and southeastern areas, are especially hot, with temperatures ranging from 18°C (64.4°F) to 33°C (91.4°F). Weather in August »
Weather in September
ushers in the transition from the hot summer months to the more temperate and pleasant autumn season in Turkey
. Temperatures begin to moderate, and the weather becomes more comfortable across the various regions of the country. The interior regions, which experienced scorching temperatures in July
, begin to cool down, with temperatures ranging from 15°C (59°F) to 28°C (82.4°F). Weather in September »
Weather in October
marks a definite shift towards autumn in Turkey
, bringing cooler temperatures, vibrant foliage, and a more tranquil atmosphere in many tourist areas. In the interior regions, the temperature continues its gradual decline from the summer highs, ranging from 10°C (50°F) to 20°C (68°F). Weather in October »
Weather in November
ushers in a noticeable change towards winter, with a drop in temperatures, shorter days, and an increase in rainfall in many regions. The interior regions experience a significant shift towards winter weather, with temperatures ranging from 4°C (39.2°F) to 12°C (53.6°F). Weather in November »
Weather in December
heralds the arrival of winter in Turkey
, with cold temperatures, shorter daylight hours, and varying weather patterns across the country's diverse geographical regions. In the interior parts of Turkey, including Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Anatolia, temperatures range from -4°C (24.8°F) to 6°C (42.8°F). Weather in December »