Climate and monthly weather forecast

Flag of Turkmenistan
Flag of Turkmenistan

The climate of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan lies in Central Asia, bordered by the Caspian Sea to the west and largely surrounded by land on all other sides. The terrain is mainly desert, with some oases and a few mountainous regions. This landlocked country, largely covered by the Karakum Desert, experiences a cold desert climate (BWk). Turkmenistan's weather is severely continental, characterized by long, hot, dry summers and mild, dry winters with occasional cold snaps in the northern regions. Precipitation levels vary significantly across the country, with an annual average of 80mm in the northwestern areas to 300mm in the Kopet Dag mountains. Ashgabat, the capital, receives an average of 225mm of rainfall per year. Average annual temperatures range from 12.8°C in Daşoguz to 17.5°C in Ashgabat. Despite the extreme desert conditions, the presence of the Amu Darya river and the Kopet Dag range create some variation in climate, with a slightly milder, semi-arid condition prevailing in these regions.

The best time to visit Turkmenistan

The optimal period to explore Turkmenistan lies between April and June, and then from September to early November. These months correspond to spring and autumn respectively, offering relatively moderate temperatures and low precipitation. April to June provides warm days with average temperatures hovering around 20°C to 30°C, ideal for outdoor exploration. The period from September to November is slightly cooler, with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 25°C. These periods, while being warm, avoid the extreme summer heat and harsh winter cold.

The worst time to visit Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan’s harsh desert climate makes the height of summer, from late June to August, and winter, particularly in January, less than ideal for travel. In summer, the desert regions can reach temperatures upwards of 40°C. These sweltering conditions, combined with the arid landscape, can be challenging for many visitors. Winter, in contrast, can be bitterly cold in the northern regions, with temperatures sometimes dropping below freezing point. However, it is worth noting that winters tend to be milder in the southern and coastal areas.

Spring weather in Turkmenistan

Spring in Turkmenistan, which lasts from March to May, heralds the start of pleasant weather following the chill of winter. In this period, temperatures progressively rise from an average of 15°C in March to 30°C in May. Precipitation during this season remains relatively low, making it a suitable time for outdoor activities and sightseeing. The landscapes come alive with blossoming vegetation, particularly in the areas surrounding the Amu Darya river and the foothills of the Kopet Dag mountains.

Summer weather in Turkmenistan

Summer in Turkmenistan, which extends from June through September, is characterized by extremely high temperatures and minimal rainfall. The mercury often soars above 40°C, particularly in July and August, making it the hottest time of the year. The arid landscape receives very little precipitation, which combined with the high temperatures, results in severe heat and dryness. Despite the harsh conditions, the coastal areas along the Caspian Sea offer some respite due to the moderating influence of the water body.

Autumn weather in Turkmenistan

Autumn in Turkmenistan is marked by a gradual cooling of temperatures from the peak summer heat. The season, which lasts from September to November, offers a more comfortable climate with temperatures averaging between 15°C and 25°C. Precipitation remains low throughout the season, which, coupled with the cooler temperatures, provides ideal conditions for exploring the country's unique landscapes and cultural sights. The changing colours of the landscape add to the appeal of this season.

Winter weather in Turkmenistan

Winter in Turkmenistan spans from December to February, and is characterized by colder temperatures and relatively little precipitation. Average temperatures in the northern regions can drop to 0°C, especially in January. Southern regions and areas near the coast, however, experience milder winters with temperatures rarely falling below 5°C. Despite the cold, the clear and sunny days typical of this season provide opportunities to explore Turkmenistan's winter landscapes, albeit with appropriate warm clothing.

Weather in January

January is the coldest month of the year in Turkmenistan. With temperatures primarily below freezing in the northern regions, winter holds a strong grip on the country. In Daşoguz, a city located in the north near the Uzbek border, average temperatures typically range from -4°C to 1°C, frequently dipping below freezing point. Contrastingly, the southern parts of the country, including the capital Ashgabat, experience slightly milder conditions. Weather in January »

Weather in February

February in Turkmenistan signifies the progression of winter towards spring, though winter's chill still predominates across the country. In the northern city of Daşoguz, average temperatures start to inch upwards compared to January, ranging from -2°C to 3°C. Weather in February »

Weather in March

March in Turkmenistan is the transitional phase between winter and spring. With temperatures gradually on the rise, the wintry cold begins to recede, replaced by the more temperate conditions of spring. In Daşoguz, in the north, the temperature ranges from 2°C to 10°C, leaving behind the sub-zero temperatures of the preceding months. In the southern region, the weather continues to warm up. Weather in March »

Weather in April

April signifies the full onset of spring in Turkmenistan, with a marked increase in temperatures across the country. Daşoguz, in the north, enjoys a moderate climate with temperatures ranging from 10°C to 20°C. These warmer conditions contrast sharply with the frosty winter temperatures of the preceding months. In the south, the average temperatures in Ashgabat rise significantly, fluctuating between 13°C to 24°C. Weather in April »

Weather in May

May in Turkmenistan marks the transition from spring to the hot, arid summer. Temperatures throughout the country begin to climb significantly, particularly in the interior regions. In the northern city of Daşoguz, average temperatures fluctuate between 16°C and 28°C, indicative of the warming trend. In the south, the weather turns even warmer. Weather in May »

Weather in June

June ushers in the full force of summer in Turkmenistan, characterized by soaring temperatures, particularly in the country's interior. In the northern region, the city of Daşoguz experiences average temperatures that range from 22°C to 34°C, a significant increase from the previous month. The southern region of the country, including the capital Ashgabat, contends with even higher temperatures, averaging between 24°C to 37°C. Weather in June »

Weather in July

July is the hottest month of the year in Turkmenistan, with temperatures reaching their peak across the country. In Daşoguz, located in the north, the average temperatures typically range from 24°C to 37°C, maintaining the sweltering trend that began in June. The southern region, including Ashgabat, experiences even higher temperatures. Weather in July »

Weather in August

August in Turkmenistan remains firmly within the summer season, maintaining high temperatures, albeit with a slight decrease from the peak heat of July. In the northern city of Daşoguz, average temperatures range from 22°C to 35°C, presenting a modest decline from July's extreme highs. The southern region, including the capital Ashgabat, continues to endure high temperatures, albeit slightly reduced from July. Weather in August »

Weather in September

September in Turkmenistan marks the beginning of the transition from the sweltering summer to the more moderate autumn season. The city of Daşoguz, in the north, witnesses a substantial decrease in temperature, with averages ranging from 17°C to 30°C, signaling a welcome respite from the summer heat. In the southern region, Ashgabat experiences a similar cooling trend, with average temperatures fluctuating between 20°C to 32°C, a noticeable change from the intense heat of August. Weather in September »

Weather in October

October in Turkmenistan heralds the full onset of the autumn season, characterized by significantly milder temperatures than the preceding summer months. In the northern city of Daşoguz, the average temperatures range from 11°C to 21°C, a stark contrast to the scorching summer heat. The southern region, including the capital Ashgabat, experiences a similar trend, with temperatures dropping to an average range between 14°C to 24°C. Weather in October »

Weather in November

November in Turkmenistan signals the transition from the mild autumn season to the onset of winter, with temperatures across the country continuing to decrease. In Daşoguz, in the north, average temperatures range from 6°C to 13°C, marking a significant dip from the autumnal warmth of October. In the southern region, including the capital, Ashgabat, the cooling trend persists, with temperatures averaging between 8°C to 16°C. Weather in November »

Weather in December

December in Turkmenistan marks the beginning of winter, with temperatures continuing to drop across the country. In Daşoguz, in the north, average temperatures range from 2°C to 8°C, indicating the full onset of the colder season. The southern region, including the capital Ashgabat, experiences a similar cooling trend. Weather in December »


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