is a Central Asian country located between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. It is bordered by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. The autonomous republic of Qoraqalpoghiston (Karakalpakstan) is part of Uzbekistan. Its total area is 448,971 sq km (173,349 sq mi). As of 2023, the estimated population is 36,407,000.
The official language is Uzbek, but Russian, Tajik, and Kazakh are also spoken. Islam is the predominant religion; Eastern Orthodoxy is also practiced. The currency is the sum.
Uzbekistan is predominantly flat, sunbaked lowlands, with fertile oases and high mountain ranges in the south and east. Two-thirds of the Aral Sea lies within its borders. The country is a major producer and exporter of natural gas and has sizable reserves of petroleum, coal, and various metallic ores. Cotton, fruits, vegetables, and Karakul sheep are among the main agricultural products. It is also the main manufacturer of machinery and heavy equipment in Central Asia.
Uzbekistan is a republic with two legislative bodies: the Senate (100 members) and the Legislative Chamber (150 members). The president is the head of state and government, assisted by the prime minister.
In 2020, the urban population was 50.6% and the rural population was 49.4%. The life expectancy at birth for males in 2019 was 72.8 years, while for females it was 77.4 years. In 2020, the gross national income (GNI) per capita was US$1,670 and the total GNI was US$57,291,000,000.