Bosnia and Herzegovina
is a country located in the Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and along a narrow stretch of land, the Adriatic Sea. The area spans 19,772 square miles (51,209 square kilometers) and is home to an estimated population of 3,428,000 people in 2023. The capital city is Sarajevo. The majority of the population are Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), accounting for more than two-fifths of the population, with one-third Serbs and less than one-fifth Croats.
The landscape is mostly mountainous, and many areas reach heights of over 6,000 feet (1,800 meters). The Sava, Drina, and Neretva rivers run through the country as well as their tributaries. Natural resources abound in the region, complimenting its heavy industrial production. Despite this, the country remains one of the poorest in former Yugoslavia.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a unique tripartite presidency, though it is nominally the head of state. A representative of the international community serves as the final authority in this capacity. The head of government is the prime minister (Chairman of the Council of Ministers). The country has two legislative houses: the House of Peoples (151 members) and the House of Representatives (42 members).
The official languages are Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian. Most of the population practice Christianity (Eastern Orthodox[Serbs'>, Roman Catholic[Croats'>), or Islam (Bosniaks). The currency used is the convertible marka (KM3, 4).
Life expectancy at birth for males is 74.3 years and 80.5 years for females (2019). Literacy rate is 99% for males and 95% for females (2013). Gross national income (GNI) per capita was US$6,090 in 2020, while GNI was US$19,971,000 (2020).