The climate of Egypt
mainly has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) - the climate is extremely hot and dry except for the Mediterranean influence on the north coast, and the hot and arid (Köppen BWk) area along the Red Sea coast. Egypt is a transcontinental country that spans the northeastern corner of Africa and the southwestern corner of Asia. The Isthmus of Suez is a land bridge that connects the African and Asian parts of the country. The Red Sea lies in the east, Sudan is in the south, Libya is in the west, and Israel and Gaza Strip are in the northeast. The Tropic of Cancer passes through Egypt, and the Saharan and Libyan deserts influence the climate heavily. The Mediterranean and Red Seas are primary climatic factors in the northern and northeastern coasts.
Egypt, the sunniest and driest country in the world, has a predominantly desert landscape except for the Nile Valley and delta region. Outside the Nile Valley, the topography is typically arid, with scattered oases. Winds blow sand and create dunes into prolific structures that grow over 30 meters high. The Nile Valley occupies only 5.5% of the country’s area but is the only fertile region, and hosts 99% of the population. Much of the country is part of the Saharan and Libyan deserts. The desert on the western side of the Nile sees higher temperatures and lower rainfall than that on the eastern side. The Sinai Peninsula joins the African part of Egypt with the Asian section. The Peninsula is flat in the northern two-thirds and mountainous in the south. Mount Catherine is the highest point in Egypt at 2629 meters.
The best time to visit Egypt
The best time to visit Egypt
is during the winter from November
. The days are warm and sunny, with moderate rainfall along the northern coast. Winter is the best season to visit Cairo and the Great Pyramids of Giza in the north. Luxor and Aswan in the south have high temperatures during the day but experience the best conditions of the year in December
. Beach holidays are best in April
, and November along the Red Sea coast. Mediterranean ocean waters are at their best during mid-October to mid-November when temperatures are in the range of 23.9°C to 25°C. Although the atmosphere is pleasant in the winter, the seawater is cold for swimming and sunbathing.
The worst time to visit Egypt
The worst time to visit Egypt
is generally in the summer from June
. The interior areas with no rain and southern regions are scorching even in May
. The average daily high temperatures in Aswan and Luxor are between 38.9°C to 41.1°C but scale highs of 48.9°C when the hot Khamaseen wind blows from the south. The Red Sea coast registers average highs above 37.8°C during peak summer. Alexandria and Cairo in the north are hot during the day, with average high temperatures in the 29.4°C to 35°C. The Mediterranean seawaters register average temperatures of 20°C in May and 26.1°C in September.
Spring weather in Egypt
Spring in Egypt
is known for the hot and dry Khamaseen wind that carries dust and sand particles from the southern deserts. This period sees daily high temperatures from 40°C to 50°C. Despite the soaring temperatures, the skies remain mostly clear throughout spring. Humidity is usually below 5% during periods of heatwaves, offering a dry climate suitable for desert adventures.
Summer weather in Egypt
Summers in Egypt
are characterized by high temperatures, particularly in the interior areas and southern regions. Average daily high temperatures in cities like Aswan and Luxor are between 38.9°C to 41.1°C, reaching peaks of 48.9°C when the hot Khamaseen wind blows from the south. The Red Sea coast records average highs above 37.8°C during peak summer, offering an ideal climate for those seeking a sun-soaked vacation.
Autumn weather in Egypt
Autumn in Egypt
witnesses a gradual decrease in temperatures following the sweltering summer. Daytime temperatures are generally warm, while nights are cooler, providing a comfortable climate for sightseeing and other activities. Autumn also marks the onset of the short rainy season along the Mediterranean Coast, although the rain is typically negligible in the central and southern parts of the country.
Winter weather in Egypt
Winters in Egypt
are generally mild and sunny, making it a popular season for tourists. However, temperatures can drop below freezing in the desert at night. The Sinai Mountains and a few northern coastal cities experience frost and occasional snowfall, a contrast to the country's typical arid climate. The winter season also brings the highest rainfall along the Mediterranean Coast, with December
being the wettest months.
Weather in January
is in the middle of the winter season in Egypt
. The temperature during this month exhibits a significant contrast when compared to the typically hot and arid climate seen throughout the year. The mild winter temperatures create an inviting atmosphere for tourists who prefer to avoid the scorching heat. In the northern part of the country, including Cairo and the Mediterranean Coast, January is the coldest month. Weather in January »
Weather in February
As the last month of winter, February
signals a transition in Egypt
's climate. The country experiences a gradual rise in temperature, indicating the onset of the spring season. Despite this, the temperatures remain relatively mild compared to the extreme heat the country witnesses during summer. In the northern region of Egypt, including Cairo and the Mediterranean Coast, February sees a slight increase in average temperatures compared to January
. Weather in February »
Weather in March
brings with it the advent of the spring season, characterized by a further increase in temperature. The country experiences a noticeable shift in weather, offering more warmth than the preceding winter months, and indicating the approaching summer. In Cairo and other northern regions, including the Mediterranean coast, March experiences a tangible rise in average temperatures. Weather in March »
Weather in April
marks the end of the spring season and the onset of the early summer. This month witnesses a significant jump in temperatures across the country, preparing for the characteristic heat of the upcoming summer months. In northern Egypt, including Cairo and the Mediterranean coast, the rise in average temperatures becomes more prominent. Weather in April »
Weather in May
signals the full arrival of the summer season, marked by significantly warmer temperatures and drier conditions across the entire country. This month typically experiences a substantial rise in temperatures, an indication of the peak summer heat that lies ahead. In Cairo and other regions in the north, including the Mediterranean coast, the average temperatures continue to climb. Weather in May »
Weather in June
marks the commencement of peak summer in Egypt
, accompanied by intense heat and virtually no rainfall. As the month progresses, temperatures across the country continue to rise, underscoring the arrival of the summer's pinnacle. In Cairo and other regions in the north, including the Mediterranean coast, the rise in average temperatures becomes more dramatic. Weather in June »
Weather in July
, in the heart of the Egyptian summer, witnesses extreme heat across the country, characterized by high temperatures and extremely dry conditions. This month usually sees the peak of the summer season, with temperatures often reaching their annual maximum. In Cairo and other regions in the north, including the Mediterranean coast, the high temperatures persist. Weather in July »
Weather in August
marks the last of the scorching summer months, with the country continuing to experience extreme heat and dryness. However, towards the end of the month, there is a gradual decline in temperatures, hinting at the approaching autumn season. Cairo and other northern regions, including the Mediterranean coast, continue to face intense heat in August. Weather in August »
Weather in September
signifies the transition from the intense summer months to the milder autumn season. As the month progresses, there is a gradual decrease in temperature across the country, resulting in relatively cooler and more comfortable weather. In Cairo and other northern regions, including the Mediterranean coast, the intense summer heat starts to recede. Weather in September »
Weather in October
represents a continuation of the transition from the sweltering summer to the more temperate autumn. The month witnesses further reductions in temperature across the country, contributing to a more pleasant climate that many associate with the Egyptian autumn season. Cairo, along with other northern regions and the Mediterranean coast, welcomes the respite from summer's extreme heat. Weather in October »
Weather in November
signifies the onset of the mild winter season, bringing a further reduction in temperatures across the country and increased precipitation along the Mediterranean coast. This transition to cooler conditions makes November one of the most pleasant months for visitors and locals alike. In Cairo and other northern regions, including the Mediterranean coast, the weather becomes cooler and more comfortable. Weather in November »
Weather in December
signals the heart of the mild winter season, characterized by significant reductions in temperature and increased precipitation, particularly along the Mediterranean coast. The climatic conditions during this month make it one of the most comfortable and preferred periods for tourists and locals. In the northern regions, including Cairo and the Mediterranean coast, temperatures continue to drop. Weather in December »