is a landlocked country located in north-central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. It covers an area of 1,564,241 square kilometers (603,957 square miles), making it the 18th largest nation in the world. According to recent estimates, Mongolia's population is around 3.4 million people. The capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator).
Mongolia consists mostly of steppes and mountains, with the Altai Range running through the northwest, the Hangayn (Khangai) Mountains in the north and the Hentiyn (Khentei) Mountains in the east. The southern and eastern parts of the country are dominated by the Gobi Desert. Livestock farming and herding is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for nearly three-fourths of the total value of agricultural production. Wheat is the major crop grown in Mongolia. Mineral deposits, such as coal, iron ore, and copper, are plentiful and make up a significant part of the country's wealth.
Mongolia is a unitary multiparty republic with one legislative house known as the State Great Hural. The head of state is the President and the head of government is the Prime Minister. The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian, although Turkic languages, Russian and Chinese are also spoken. Religion in Mongolia is mainly traditional beliefs, Buddhism, and Islam. The currency is the tugrik (Tug).
The average elevation of Mongolia is 5,200 feet (1,580 meters) above sea level. The majority of the population (80%) is made up of ethnic Mongols, while the remaining 20% consists of Kazakhs, Russians, and Chinese. Life expectancy at birth is relatively low, at 65.7 years for men and 74.4 years for women. Literacy rates are high, with roughly 99% of the population aged 15 or over being able to read and write. The Gross National Income per capita (GNI) is estimated to be US$3,670 in 2020.