Climate and monthly weather forecast

Flag of Mongolia
Flag of Mongolia

The climate of Mongolia

Mongolia, situated in the heart of Central Asia, is characterized by a unique blend of geographic features. From expansive plains to rugged mountain ranges and the unforgiving Gobi Desert, the country's vast landmass varies greatly, which is mirrored in its diverse climatic conditions. A substantial portion of Mongolia experiences a Dwc climate type, known as a snow climate with dry winters. This results in long, frigid winters and short, cool to mild summers. However, southern Mongolia and the Gobi Desert region deviate from this pattern with a BWk, or cold desert climate, marked by low annual rainfall, high evaporation, and significant temperature swings between day and night.

The Best Time to Visit Mongolia

The most favorable time to visit Mongolia is typically from June to August, during the country's brief summer season. These months experience mild to warm temperatures, generally between 20°C (68°F) to 30°C (86°F). While occasional rainfall is possible, it is also the time when the landscapes are at their greenest and most vibrant. July, in particular, is a popular month for visitors as the celebrated Naadam Festival, a significant cultural event, takes place. However, those interested in visiting the Gobi Desert might prefer the slightly cooler spring or autumn months, when the extreme temperature variations are somewhat less pronounced.

The Worst Time to Visit Mongolia

The most challenging period to visit Mongolia is during the harsh winter season, from November to February. Temperatures can plummet to extremes of -30°C (-22°F), especially in northern and central parts of the country. Snowfall is common, and strong, chilling winds can add to the severity of the weather conditions. The Gobi Desert area, despite its arid climate, can also experience harsh conditions with biting cold temperatures, particularly during the night. The remote nature of many of Mongolia's attractions can make travel particularly challenging during these months.

Spring Weather in Mongolia

Spring in Mongolia, occurring from March to May, is often characterized by a mix of weather conditions. Early spring can still be quite cold, with temperatures ranging from -5°C (23°F) to 10°C (50°F). As the season progresses, the weather starts to warm up, but strong winds, known as 'dzud', can result in harsh conditions, especially in the open steppe and desert regions. Towards the end of spring, temperatures can reach up to 20°C (68°F), particularly in southern regions. It is also a season of low precipitation, with most of the country remaining dry.

Summer Weather in Mongolia

The summer months from June to August bring a welcome respite from the harsh cold of the preceding seasons. During this time, average temperatures range from 20°C (68°F) to 30°C (86°F), providing a comfortable climate for outdoor activities and exploration. However, summer is also the period of the highest rainfall, especially in July. Rain showers, although typically brief, can be heavy at times. In the Gobi Desert, summer temperatures can be more extreme, soaring up to 40°C (104°F) during the day, yet cooling down significantly at night.

Autumn Weather in Mongolia

Autumn, from September to October, is a season of transition in Mongolia. It starts off with mild temperatures ranging from 15°C (59°F) to 25°C (77°F) in September, gradually decreasing as the season progresses. The countryside radiates a golden hue as foliage changes color, offering picturesque scenes. Precipitation decreases significantly, giving way to clearer skies. However, nights can get quite chilly, particularly in the desert areas, as autumn transitions into the severe winter season.

Winter Weather in Mongolia

Winter in Mongolia is long and rigorous, lasting from November to February. The country endures extremely low temperatures, falling between -15°C (5°F) to -30°C (-22°F), and sometimes even lower in the northern regions. Snowfall is common throughout the country, and the accumulated snow can last for several months due to persistent cold conditions. Winter also features strong winds, particularly in the open steppe and desert areas, intensifying the already harsh conditions. Despite its severity, Mongolian winter creates a unique, stark beauty, transforming the landscape into a vast, white expanse.

Weather in January

January is widely recognized as the coldest month in Mongolia, with temperatures frequently dropping to extreme lows. In the northern and central regions, including the capital city Ulaanbaatar, temperatures can plummet to -30°C (-22°F). Weather in January »

Weather in February

February in Mongolia is still in the firm grip of winter, with sub-zero temperatures prevalent across the country. However, it is slightly less severe compared to the extreme cold experienced in January. The northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, generally observe temperatures ranging from -25°C (-13°F) to -15°C (5°F). Weather in February »

Weather in March

The arrival of March in Mongolia signals the beginning of the transition from winter to spring, albeit at a slow pace. Despite the lingering cold from the winter months, temperatures start to rise gradually. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures can range from -15°C (5°F) to -5°C (23°F). Weather in March »

Weather in April

April in Mongolia marks the arrival of spring in full bloom, with temperatures continuing their upward climb after the transition that began in March. In the northern and central regions of the country, including the capital Ulaanbaatar, temperatures typically range from -5°C (23°F) to 10°C (50°F). Weather in April »

Weather in May

May in Mongolia signifies the culmination of spring and the advent of summer. It is a month of significant change, as the chill in the air gives way to warmth and the landscapes flourish with verdant greenery. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures usually fluctuate between 10°C (50°F) to 20°C (68°F). Weather in May »

Weather in June

June marks the beginning of the brief but beautiful summer season in Mongolia. This period witnesses long days and warmer temperatures, making it an ideal time for exploration and outdoor activities. In the northern and central regions, which includes Ulaanbaatar, average temperatures range between 15°C (59°F) and 25°C (77°F). Weather in June »

Weather in July

July in Mongolia is the heart of the summer season and is generally the warmest month of the year. The longer daylight hours and warmer temperatures provide perfect conditions for outdoor activities. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures typically vary from 20°C (68°F) to 30°C (86°F). Weather in July »

Weather in August

August in Mongolia represents the tail end of the summer season, with temperatures starting to gradually cool down while still remaining warm. The northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, usually experience temperatures between 15°C (59°F) to 25°C (77°F). Weather in August »

Weather in September

September ushers in the autumn season in Mongolia, a period marked by crisp air, cooler temperatures, and changing landscapes. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures generally fluctuate between 10°C (50°F) and 20°C (68°F). Weather in September »

Weather in October

October in Mongolia sees the full onset of the autumn season, with temperatures continuing their downward trend as winter approaches. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures typically range from 0°C (32°F) to 10°C (50°F). Weather in October »

Weather in November

November in Mongolia signifies the onset of the harsh winter season. The autumnal hues give way to white landscapes as the first snowfall of the season occur. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures often fall below freezing, typically ranging from -10°C (14°F) to 0°C (32°F). Weather in November »

Weather in December

December in Mongolia is marked by a full embrace of the harsh winter season. This period witnesses some of the coldest temperatures and heaviest snowfall of the year. In the northern and central regions, including Ulaanbaatar, temperatures regularly drop below freezing, typically ranging from -20°C (-4°F) to -10°C (14°F). Weather in December »
Resources | Updated: Feb 1, 2024 | Published by: Weather Atlas


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