is a small island located in the southwestern South Pacific Ocean, halfway between New Caledonia and New Zealand. Discovered by Captain James Cook in 1774, the island was later used by the British as a penal colony from 1788-1814 and 1825-55. In 1856, the population of Pitcairn Island was moved to Norfolk Island and many of its current inhabitants are descendants of the crew members of HMS Bounty.
The geography of Norfolk Island is largely made up of rugged terrain with an abundance of Norfolk Island pine trees. It has an area of 13 square miles (35 sq km). As of 2016, the population was estimated at 1,748 people.
Tourism is the major industry on Norfolk Island; however, other activities include agriculture and fishing. The island is known for its pristine beaches, historic sites and spectacular views.