The climate of Sudan
, the third-largest country in Africa, is largely composed of vast desert landscapes, including the Sahara desert in the north, the Nubian desert to the northeast, and arid plains in the center. It is sandwiched between the Red Sea to the northeast and the Central African rainforests to the south. The country's topography also includes mountain ranges like the Marrah Mountains and the Red Sea Hills. The Köppen climate classification for Sudan is "Bwh", indicating a Tropical and Subtropical Desert Climate. This climate, known as Arid Desert Hot, suggests that Sudan experiences high temperatures throughout the year, with an annual mean temperature consistently above 18°C. Moreover, due to its aridity, Sudan is largely unsuitable for most plant life.
The Best Time to Visit Sudan
Given its desert climate, the best time to visit Sudan
is during the winter months, from November
, when temperatures range between 15°C and 27°C. During these months, the intense summer heat subsides, making it comfortable for sightseeing and outdoor activities. Moreover, this period also witnesses the least amount of precipitation, resulting in fewer disruptions for tourists. A notable event to experience during this time is the Sudan Independent Film Festival held in Khartoum.
The Worst Time to Visit Sudan
The summer months from May
are usually the least suitable for visiting Sudan
. During this time, temperatures can soar from 40°C to 47°C, making it extremely uncomfortable for outdoor activities. This period also coincides with the short rainy season, especially in the south and the mountainous regions, further complicating travel plans. Additionally, dust storms, locally known as 'Haboob', are quite common during this time.
Spring Weather in Sudan
Spring in Sudan
, from March
, experiences rising temperatures, with averages increasing from 30°C to 40°C. However, the humidity during this time is generally low due to the country's arid climate. Rainfall is almost negligible, especially in the northern and central regions. Visitors to Sudan during spring may witness the beautiful blooming of acacia trees and other desert flora, a sight exclusive to this season.
Summer Weather in Sudan
Sudanese summer, which spans from June
, is characterized by scorching temperatures, often rising above 40°C. Rainfall is sporadic but can be heavy, especially in the southern parts of Sudan
and the Marrah Mountains, where it ranges from 50mm to 150mm. The weather conditions, combined with the high temperatures, can make this season inhospitable to visitors not accustomed to such extreme climates. It is also the season when dust storms, or 'Haboobs', are most prevalent.
Autumn Weather in Sudan
Autumn in Sudan
, observed from September
, sees a gradual drop in temperature, ranging from 32°C in September to 27°C in November. The rainfall also decreases significantly during this time, marking the transition from the rainy season to the dry season. Despite the residual heat from the summer, this period might be of interest to tourists keen on experiencing the end of the rainy season's unique landscape transformations.
Winter Weather in Sudan
Winter, extending from December
, is the coolest season in Sudan
with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 27°C. Rainfall is virtually non-existent during this time, and the humidity levels are at their lowest. With a more pleasant climate and clearer skies, this season presents ideal conditions for exploring the country's many archaeological sites,including the Pyramids of Meroe, and the natural beauty of its desert landscapes.
Weather in January
falls within the winter season in Sudan
, offering the coolest weather throughout the year. This month provides a refreshing break from the country's typically high temperatures. On average, the daily temperature in Sudan during January ranges between 15°C to 27°C. In the capital city, Khartoum, situated at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile, the weather in January is relatively cool and dry. Weather in January »
Weather in February
signals the continuation of the winter season in Sudan
, but temperatures gradually begin to rise as the month progresses. Average temperatures during February typically range from 16°C to 30°C. In Khartoum, the capital city situated at the intersection of the Blue and White Nile, February weather is characterized by slightly warmer conditions compared to January
. Weather in February »
Weather in March
transitions from winter to spring, March
witnesses a significant rise in temperatures. Average temperatures in Sudan during March tend to fluctuate between 20°C and 35°C, indicating the approaching hot season. In Khartoum, the capital city nestled at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile, temperatures during March can vary from 21°C during cooler hours to a peak of 37°C during the day. Weather in March »
Weather in April
marks a continued progression into the hot season. Temperatures rise significantly, with averages typically falling between 24°C and 40°C across the country. In the capital city, Khartoum, located at the juncture of the Blue and White Nile, April brings exceptionally hot conditions. Weather in April »
Weather in May
continues the hot season in Sudan
with persistently high temperatures, although this month also signals the gradual onset of the rainy season in certain regions. Average temperatures across the country typically fall between 26°C and 42°C. In the capital city, Khartoum, located at the intersection of the Blue and White Nile, temperatures remain high during May. Weather in May »
Weather in June
marks the continuation of the hot season, but also sees an intensification of the rainy season in many regions. Average temperatures during this month typically range from 27°C to 40°C across the country. In Khartoum, the capital city at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile, June continues to be characterized by high temperatures. Weather in June »
Weather in July
is marked by two contrasting climate patterns: the continuing hot season in the northern region and the peak of the rainy season in the central and southern regions. The countrywide average temperatures during this month typically range from 26°C to 37°C. In the capital city of Khartoum, located at the juncture of the Blue and White Nile, July experiences the onset of the rainy season. Weather in July »
Weather in August
presents a continued contrast in weather patterns between the northern and southern regions of the country. The northern area maintains hot and dry conditions, while the central and southern regions are deep within the rainy season. Weather in August »
Weather in September
signifies a period of transition, as the country gradually moves from the rainy season towards the dry season. Average temperatures across the country typically range from 24°C to 35°C during this month. In the capital city of Khartoum, at the convergence of the Blue and White Nile, September sees a gradual reduction in rainfall. Weather in September »
Weather in October
marks a significant turning point in the country's weather patterns, with the rainy season drawing to a close in most regions and the dry season setting in. Average temperatures throughout the country during this month generally range from 23°C to 35°C. In Khartoum, the capital situated at the meeting point of the Blue and White Nile, the weather in October sees a return to predominantly dry conditions. Weather in October »
Weather in November
indicates the onset of the dry season across most of the country, with a significant decrease in rainfall and a gradual decline in temperatures. The average temperatures during this month generally fluctuate between 19°C and 33°C across the country. In the capital city of Khartoum, located at the juncture of the Blue and White Nile, November is predominantly dry. Weather in November »
Weather in December
signifies the full onset of the dry season across the entire country, with minimal rainfall and a further reduction in temperatures. The average temperatures during this month generally range between 16°C and 30°C across the country. In the capital city of Khartoum, located at the convergence of the Blue and White Nile, December is typically dry and slightly cooler. Weather in December »